Rules of Professional Conduct
Rule 1.15: Safekeeping Property
(a) A lawyer shall hold property of clients or third persons that is in the lawyer’s possession in connection with a representation separate from the lawyer’s own property. Funds of clients or third persons that are in the lawyer’s possession (trust funds) shall be kept in one or more trust accounts maintained in accordance with paragraph (b). Other property shall be identified as such and appropriately safeguarded. Complete records of such account funds and other property shall be kept by the lawyer and shall be preserved for a period of five years after termination of the representation.
(b) All trust funds shall be deposited with an “approved depository” as that term is defined in Rule XI of the Rules Governing the District of Columbia Bar. Trust funds that are nominal in amount or expected to be held for a short period of time, and as such would not be expected to earn income for a client or third-party in excess of the costs incurred to secure such income, shall be held at an approved depository and in compliance with the District of Columbia’s Interest on Lawyers Trust Account (DC IOLTA) program. The title on each DC IOLTA account shall include the name of the lawyer or law firm that controls the account, as well as “DC IOLTA Account” or “IOLTA Account.” The title on all other trust accounts shall include the name of the lawyer or law firm that controls the account, as well as “Trust Account” or “Escrow Account.” The requirements of this paragraph (b) shall not apply when a lawyer is otherwise compliant with the contrary mandates of a tribunal; or when the lawyer is participating in, and compliant with, the trust accounting rules and the IOLTA program of the jurisdiction in which the lawyer is licensed and principally practices.
(c) Upon receiving funds or other property in which a client or third person has an interest, a lawyer shall promptly notify the client or third person. Except as stated in this rule or otherwise permitted by law or by agreement with the client, a lawyer shall promptly deliver to the client or third person any funds or other property that the client or third person is entitled to receive and, upon request by the client or third person, shall promptly render a full accounting regarding such property, subject to Rule 1.6.
(d) When in the course of representation a lawyer is in possession of property in which interests are claimed by the lawyer and another person, or by two or more persons to each of whom the lawyer may have an obligation, the property shall be kept separate by the lawyer until there is an accounting and severance of interests in the property. If a dispute arises concerning the respective interests among persons claiming an interest in such property, the undisputed portion shall be distributed and the portion in dispute shall be kept separate by the lawyer until the dispute is resolved. Any funds in dispute shall be deposited in a separate account meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) and (b).
(e) Advances of unearned fees and unincurred costs shall be treated as property of the client pursuant to paragraph (a) until earned or incurred unless the client gives informed consent to a different arrangement. Regardless of whether such consent is provided, Rule 1.16(d) applies to require the return to the client of any unearned portion of advanced legal fees and unincurred costs at the termination of the lawyer’s services in accordance with Rule 1.16(d).
(f) Nothing in this rule shall prohibit a lawyer from placing a small amount of the lawyer’s funds into a trust account for the sole purpose of defraying bank charges that may be made against that account.
 A lawyer should hold property of others with the care required of a professional fiduciary. Securities should be kept in a safe deposit box, except when some other form of safekeeping is warranted by special circumstances. All property that is the property of clients or third persons should be kept separate from the lawyer’s business and personal property and, if monies, in one or more trust accounts maintained with financial institutions meeting the requirements of this rule. This rule, among other things, sets forth the longstanding prohibitions of the misappropriation of entrusted funds and the commingling of entrusted funds with the lawyer’s property. This rule also requires that a lawyer safeguard “other property” of clients, which may include client files. For guidance concerning the disposition of closed client files, see D.C. Bar Legal Ethics Committee Opinion No. 283.
 Paragraph (a) of Rule 1.15 requires lawyers to keep "[c]omplete records of [client] funds and property. . . ." The D.C. Court of Appeals addressed the meaning of "complete records" in In re Clower, 831 A.2d 1030, 1034 (D.C. 2003): "The Rules of Professional Conduct should be interpreted with reference to their purposes. The purpose of maintaining 'complete records' is so that the documentary record itself tells the full story of how the attorney handled client or third-party funds and whether the attorney complied with his fiduciary obligation that client or third-party funds not be misappropriated or commingled. Financial records are complete only when documents sufficient to demonstrate an attorney's compliance with his ethical duties are maintained. The reason for requiring complete records is so that any audit of the attorney's handling of client funds by Disciplinary Counsel can be completed even if the attorney or the client, or both, are not available." Rule 1.15 requires that lawyers maintain records such that ownership or any other question about client funds can be answered without assistance from the lawyer or the lawyer's clients. The precise records that achieve this result obviously can vary, but lawyers may wish to look for guidance on records from the 2010 ABA Model Rules For Client Trust Account Records.
 Paragraph (a) concerns trust funds arising from “a representation.” The obligations of a lawyer under this rule are independent of those arising from activity other than rendering legal services. For example, a lawyer who serves as an escrow agent is governed by the applicable law relating to fiduciaries even though the lawyer does not render legal services in the transaction. Separate trust accounts may be warranted when administering estate monies or acting in similar fiduciary capacities.
 Paragraph (b) mandates where trust deposits shall be held and further mandates participation in the District of Columbia’s IOLTA program. This paragraph is intended to reach every lawyer who is admitted in this jurisdiction regardless of where the lawyer practices, unless a stated exception applies. Thus, a lawyer should follow the contrary mandates of a tribunal regarding deposits that are subject to that tribunal’s oversight. Similarly, if the lawyer principally practices in a foreign jurisdiction in which the lawyer is also licensed, and the lawyer maintains trust accounts compliant with that foreign jurisdiction’s trust accounting rules, the lawyer may deposit trust funds to an approved depository or to a banking institution acceptable to that foreign jurisdiction. Finally, a lawyer is not obligated to participate in the District of Columbia IOLTA program if the lawyer is participating in, and compliant with, the IOLTA program in the jurisdiction in which the lawyer is licensed and principally practices. IOLTA programs are known by different names or acronyms in some jurisdictions; this rule and its exceptions apply to all such programs, however named. This rule anticipates that a law firm with lawyers admitted to practice in the District of Columbia may be obligated to maintain accounts compliant with the IOLTA rules of other jurisdictions where firm lawyers principally practice. A lawyer who is not participating in the IOLTA program of the jurisdiction in which the lawyer principally practices because the lawyer has exercised a right to opt out of, or not to opt into, the jurisdiction’s IOLTA program, or because the jurisdiction does not have an IOLTA program, shall not thereby be excused from participating in the District of Columbia’s IOLTA program. To the extent paragraph (b) does not resolve a multi-jurisdictional conflict, see Rule 8.5. Nothing in this rule is intended to limit the power of any tribunal to direct a lawyer in connection with a pending matter, including a lawyer who is admitted pro hac vice, to hold trust funds as may be directed by that tribunal. For a list of approved depositories and additional information regarding DC IOLTA program compliance, see Rule XI, Section 20, of the Rules Governing the District of Columbia Bar, and the D.C. Bar Foundation’s website www.dcbarfoundation.org.
 The exception to Rule 1.15(b) requires a lawyer to make a good faith determination of the jurisdiction in which the lawyer principally practices. The phrase “principally practices” refers to the conduct of an individual lawyer, not to the principal place of practice of his or her law firm (which might yield a different result for a lawyer with partners). For purposes of this rule, an individual lawyer principally practices in the jurisdiction where the lawyer is licensed and generates the clear majority of his or her income. If there is no such jurisdiction, then a lawyer should identify the physical location of the office where the lawyer devotes the largest portion of his or her time. In any event, the initial good faith determination of where the lawyer principally practices should be changed only if the lawyer’s circumstances change significantly and the change is expected to continue indefinitely.
 The determination, under paragraph (b), whether trust funds are not expected to earn income in excess of costs, rests in the sound judgment of the lawyer. The lawyer should review trust practices at reasonable intervals to determine whether circumstances require further action with respect to the funds of any client or third party. Because paragraph (b) is a lawyer–specific obligation, this rule anticipates that a law firm may be obligated to maintain accounts compliant with the IOLTA rules of other jurisdictions, to the extent the lawyers in that firm do not all principally practice in the District of Columbia.
 Paragraphs (c) and (d) recognize that lawyers often receive funds from third parties from which the lawyer’s fee will be paid. The lawyer is not required to remit to the client funds that the lawyer reasonably believes represent fees owed. However, a lawyer may not hold funds to coerce a client into accepting the lawyer’s contention. The disputed portion of the funds should be kept in trust and the lawyer should suggest means for prompt resolution of the dispute, such as arbitration. The undisputed portion of the funds should be promptly distributed.
 Third parties, such as a client’s creditors, may have just claims against funds or other property in a lawyer’s custody. A lawyer may have a duty under applicable law to protect such third-party claims against wrongful interference by the client, and accordingly may refuse to surrender the property to the client. However, a lawyer should not unilaterally assume to arbitrate a dispute between the client and the third party. See D.C. Bar Legal Ethics Committee Opinion 293.
 Paragraph (e) permits advances against unearned fees and unincurred costs to be treated as either the property of the client or the property of the lawyer, but absent informed consent by the client to a different arrangement, the rule’s default position is that such advances be treated as the property of the client, subject to the restrictions provided in paragraph (a). In any case, at the termination of an engagement, advances against fees that have not been incurred must be returned to the client as provided in Rule 1.16(d). For the definition of “informed consent,” see Rule 1.0(e).
 With respect to property that constitutes evidence, such as the instruments or proceeds of crime, see Rule 3.4(a).